The main sales pitch of MLM companies to their participants and prospective participants is not the MLM company's products or services. The products/services are largely peripheral to the MLM model. Rather, the true sales pitch and emphasis is on a confidence given to participants of potential financial independence through participation in the MLM, luring with phrases like "the lifestyle you deserve" or "independent distributor."[16] Erik German's memoir My Father's Dream documents the real life failures of German's father as he is lured into "get-rich-quick" schemes such as Amway.[17] The memoir illustrates the multi-level marketing sales principle known as "selling the dream".[18]
A constant and steady lead flow in your Network Marketing business is vital to being successful. Not everyone is comfortable talking to friends and family or feel they have burnt them out. I have found that most of the times this is NOT the actual case but when getting started, you need to seek out numerous, reliable sources to create a steady lead flow. Buying MLM leads is one way to create instant lead flow, and also compliment other lead generation sources.
We strive to verify all of our data and to also ensure your best experience we also offer this lead Replacement policy. If you receive a Disconnected, wrong number or bad email address, we will replace them. Simply complete a support ticket with the leads in question and we will add fresh business opportunity leads to your account. No Questions Asked.. WE Stand Behind Our LEADS!
For some reason, many people don't view their MLM business as a business, like they would if they opened a franchise or started a business from scratch. One of the most important things you can do to insure your success is to treat your MLM venture as the business it is. Here are a few other tips to help you improve your multi-level marketing (MLM) and recruiting efforts within the world of direct selling:
7. Teach to Teach and You can go to the Beach. This might be the biggest of all the Network Marketing tips I can offer you. Yes this is a people business but it is still a BUSINESS. If YOU are the only one that can answer questions, lead webinars, etc, you aren’t teaching your team how to operate in your abscence. Teaching to teach means you answer questions in a way that the person asking the question can then tell any reps they recruit where to also get those answers. HINT: If each time a teammate asks you a question has you on the phone for 45 minutes vs pointing them to an existing training, you gots some work to do!
Author, international speaker, trainer, and icon in the Network Marketing Profession, Margie Aliprandi was a music teacher and struggling single mom when she began her Network Marketing career. She achieved a five-figure monthly income within a year, became a million-dollar earner within three years, and is in the top 1% of Network Marketing producers worldwide. She has been with one company for her entire 30-year career and her story has been featured in the movies Pass it on Today and Go For No, and in numerous books and publications including Think and Grow Rich for Women.
The main sales pitch of MLM companies to their participants and prospective participants is not the MLM company's products or services. The products/services are largely peripheral to the MLM model. Rather, the true sales pitch and emphasis is on a confidence given to participants of potential financial independence through participation in the MLM, luring with phrases like "the lifestyle you deserve" or "independent distributor."[16] Erik German's memoir My Father's Dream documents the real life failures of German's father as he is lured into "get-rich-quick" schemes such as Amway.[17] The memoir illustrates the multi-level marketing sales principle known as "selling the dream".[18]
Before you start trying to generate more leads, make sure you know who you're trying to reach and where you might be able to find them—physically or virtually. First, identify the need or want that your product or service can address. For instance, joining your direct sales business can help a person fulfill a need for more income. Perhaps the wellness products you sell can help people meet their desire to stay healthy.
Starting your network marketing business off on the right foot is so important if you want to achieve big dreams and make an income that you can use to make your life better. Want to get more network marketing tips for beginners? Stay tuned to our social media channels (we’re on Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, and Pinterest) for advice. We also have a gorgeous 10 page PDF that you can download right here where we share 10 new things you can try when you want to reignite your network marketing business!
The No B.S. Blueprint to building a life-changing business. This is one of the best books I’ve read when it comes to learning how to talk to prospects and transition the conversations, naturally, into business. I bought the audiobook, listened to it twice, then bought the paperback because I wanted to highlight the scripts she gives… they are THAT good. This is a book that I highly recommend everyone in Network Marketing to get. For the guys… this is a really feminine read, but still highly worth it.
Hmm looking to buy those Discounted Surveyed Leads (7-30 days old). I need 10 more reps like yesterday to promote to my 3rd code. I typically sponsor 1 for every 8 or 9 people I people I expose from my warm market. How many leads do you think it would take to sponsor 10 new reps? I'm guessing 1000-2000? I'm willing to call all day every day until I promote. (And no I don't plan to duplicate this lol)
I have a system which reminds me to follow up on my prospects. It does that without fail. And because most people forget about their prospects after 2 exposures, I have better chances of recruiting my prospects when I get more and more exposures. So develop a system and leverage it to succeed in MLM. This is one of the best-kept network marketing success secrets.

Below is a screen shot of a program called Zennoa which l reviewed and was in the pre-launch stage. Google did not even know that program exists and ANY website could have ranked for that search term. There is really no point in wasting valuable time flogging dead horses. There is no need for another review of Empower Network, Vemma or those MLM ancestors … LOL.

One of the great attributes of successful entrepreneurs is having a big dream and grind them every day. Staying committing in spite of the adversities around. Think excessive and dream of massive success and goals. Have a bigger vision and a bigger game plan. Decide to be the fast mover and stronger and make up your mindset to recruit more and grow exponentially.

Although an MLM company holds out those few top individual participants as evidence of how participation in the MLM could lead to success, the reality is that the MLM business model depends on the failure of the overwhelming majority of all other participants, through the injecting of money from their own pockets, so that it can become the revenue and profit of the MLM company, of which the MLM company shares only a small proportion of it to a few individuals at the very top of the MLM participant pyramid. Participants, other than the few individuals at the top, provide nothing more than their own financial loss for the company's own profit and the profit of the top few individual participants.[15]


The most important thing that you can do for yourself is get started with a good list of qualified MLM leads. Whether you are in search of fresh or aged leads, we can help you. We are one of the largest supplier of qualified MLMs leads on the internet. When you work with us, you will be certain to receive a list of some of the most serious and enthusiastic prequalified prospects who can be relied upon to have a much higher rate of response than the average list.
Use social media. Posts asking people to join your team won't likely produce results, but if you're clever, you can use social media to generate interest in your business and possible leads. For example, if you sell weight-loss products, you can promote before and after pictures on Pinterest or Instagram. If you sell makeup, you can post tutorials on YouTube that you share across social sites. 

“The 2nd value I learned, was that I wasn’t the hero in the story, I was the guide, mentor, coach, and my clients were the real heroes. I realized there was an evil villain hurting my clients, and they were seeking someone and something to help destroy it. My #1 priority went from reaching my sales quota, to listening and producing a solution for my heroes to kill the pain in their lives. Once I learned these two sales secrets, my closing ratios exploded as did the referral sales. I went from closing sales, to creating raving fans.”  - Troy Dooly


Power Coaching if you have a product, service or business, personally work with me and I will help you automate and leverage the internet so you can live the life that you truly want. I will help you take your business to the next level with personalised coaching sessions. My coaching sessions are $247/hour. Please only complete the application form if you are serious about utilising my coaching. Click here to complete the application form. 
Hey Ray, I could not agree more that you have to have a constant lead flow and it does take time to generate your own. So of course I always give leads to my new recruits when they are willing to call them. I am not a cold calling type of person so generating my own is the best way for me. I hated cold calling and love the fact that when I call the leads that I generated I have immediate posture because they have already figured out that I am very successful. Thank you for sharing this I know it will help many.. Ray Hidgon is a STAR!!
In an October 15, 2010 article, it was stated that documents of a MLM called Fortune Hi-Tech Marketing reveal that 30 percent of its representatives make no money and that 54 percent of the remaining 70 percent only make $93 a month, before costs. Fortune was under investigation by the Attorneys General of Texas, Kentucky, North Dakota, and North Carolina with Missouri, South Carolina, Illinois, and Florida following up complaints against the company.[39] The FTC eventually stated that Fortune Hi-Tech Marketing was a pyramid scheme and that checks totaling more than $3.7 million were being mailed to the victims.[40]
AllApp DevelopmentBloggingBusiness OpportunitiesBusiness SpotlightsConsultingEcommerceBuilding Traffice-BizeBayHow-To GuidesInternet MarketingSearch Engine OptimizationSite ManagementSocial MediaWeb Site DesignFranchisesFreelance WorkGig EconomyGo GreenHow-To GuidesLow-Cost BusinessesMail OrderNetwork MarketingPublishingReal EstateRetirementSecuritySEOSpecial TypesSuccess Stories
3. Instead of being pushy, be pull-y. This is a suggestion in sales too. Pull-y means you ask them the right questions to pull them vs try to cram what you want to talk about down their throat. Why did you join? What did you hope to gain? Are those things serious to you? Do you truly want those things? How will you attain freedom if you don’t build this? All of those questions illicit pull type responses from your people.

Multi-level marketing (MLM), also called pyramid selling,[1][2] network marketing,[2][3] and referral marketing,[4] is a marketing strategy for the sale of products or services where the revenue of the MLM company is derived from a non-salaried workforce selling the company's products/services, while the earnings of the participants are derived from a pyramid-shaped or binary compensation commission system.
The Federal Trade Commission issued a decision, In re Amway Corp., in 1979 in which it indicated that multi-level marketing was not illegal per se in the United States. However, Amway was found guilty of price fixing (by effectively requiring "independent" distributors to sell at the same fixed price) and making exaggerated income claims.[47][48] The FTC advises that multi-level marketing organizations with greater incentives for recruitment than product sales are to be viewed skeptically. The FTC also warns that the practice of getting commissions from recruiting new members is outlawed in most states as "pyramiding".[49]
"People like doing business with individuals that make them feel good.  In other words, you’re going to get a lot more business when you’re not simply there to ‘get’ your clients money in exchange for what you’re selling.  Think of it this way.  Be the person who they’d want to actually spend time with outside of a business setting.  It doesn’t mean you have to be their best friend and hang out together, it simply means that you’re showing you care through your actions.  One of the best things you can do is reach out to a potential client when they least expect it, with no agenda, no contract, no pitch…and just say ‘hello’ to see how they’re doing.” - Todd Falcone

Because of the encouraging of recruits to further recruit their competitors, some people have even gone so far as to say at best modern MLMs are nothing more than legalized pyramid schemes[4][19][20] with one stating "Multi-level marketing companies have become an accepted and legally sanctioned form of pyramid scheme in the United States"[19] while another states "Multi-Level Marketing, a form of Pyramid Scheme, is not necessarily fraudulent."[20] In October 2010 it was reported that multilevel marketing companies were being investigated by a number of state attorneys general amid allegations that salespeople were primarily paid for recruiting and that more recent recruits cannot earn anything near what early entrants do.[60] Industry critic Robert L. FitzPatrick has called multi-level marketing "the Main Street bubble" that will eventually burst.[61]
AllApp DevelopmentBloggingBusiness OpportunitiesBusiness SpotlightsConsultingEcommerceBuilding Traffice-BizeBayHow-To GuidesInternet MarketingSearch Engine OptimizationSite ManagementSocial MediaWeb Site DesignFranchisesFreelance WorkGig EconomyGo GreenHow-To GuidesLow-Cost BusinessesMail OrderNetwork MarketingPublishingReal EstateRetirementSecuritySEOSpecial TypesSuccess Stories
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) states: "Steer clear of multilevel marketing plans that pay commissions for recruiting new distributors. They're actually illegal pyramid schemes. Why is pyramiding dangerous? Because plans that pay commissions for recruiting new distributors inevitably collapse when no new distributors can be recruited. And when a plan collapses, most people—except perhaps those at the very top of the pyramid—end up empty-handed."[45]
Go Pro Recruiting Mastery – the world’s #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession.  Join us December 4-6 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada.  You will hear from top thought leaders including Magic Johnson, John Maxwell, and dozens of Million-Dollar Earners.  It’s an extraordinary event that you and your team can’t afford to miss.
The first thing you need to do is protect yourself from pyramid schemes masquerading as MLM ventures. You should arm yourself with knowledge about the direct sales industry and MLM companies in general. Moreover, you need to vet your sponsor to find out if they’re a good match for you. Yes, you can make money in MLM. However, the statistics show that less than 1 percent of MLM representatives actually achieve success in their MLM business. That doesn’t necessarily mean that MLM businesses are broken. Just look at the world of athletics for example. Most athletes never make it to the Olympics. Does that mean that the Olympics are broken? 

We know that creative business partnering and networking can help everyone save time, money and energy for the more soul-satisfying aspects of living. Therefore, we have partnered with state-of-the-art recruitment generating systems and vendors to save you time and money and by providing you with the highest quality traffic and business opportunity leads for your business. See our Services to the left! Each link has an explanation of each service.
Many of the beautiful sites offered no type of ongoing training, and that was something that really needs to be be a part of any good MLM leads programs. The sites we recommend all provides training which also includes scripts, handling objections, presentation, following up, closing, and other MLM leads topics. There are some HOT MLM leads sites out there that truly delivered on this qulaity of MLM leads training.
MLMs are designed to make profit for the owners/shareholders of the company, and a few individual participants at the top levels of the MLM pyramid of participants. According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), some MLM companies already constitute illegal pyramid schemes even by the narrower existing legislation, exploiting members of the organization.[21] There have been calls in various countries to broaden existing anti-pyramid scheme legislation to include MLMs, or to enact specific anti-MLM legislation to make all MLMs illegal in parallel to pyramid schemes, as has already been done in some jurisdictions.[citation needed]
Of course the book isn't perfect. It could certainly benefit by showing how social media can fit in to your tool kit-- and this is something that Worre does go into outside of his book. Also his online trainings and videos fill in a lot of the gaps, such has his "blitz" strategies that I've seen other people use to go right to the top of our organization in a very short time.
“For example, most people want to earn more money, but why? They want to earn more money so they can spend time with their family, pay off debt, or move away from a pain they are experiencing; these are  benefits of the benefit. Effective rapport building and prospecting will help you uncover what are their decision-driving factors, so never go for the close until you uncover their decision drivers first, which are usually the benefits of the benefit. Seek to serve your prospect, always speak in terms of benefit to them, under-promise and over- deliver, and always do what is in their best interest regardless of your own selfish interest." - Ron Gelok III
Don’t worry you will learn how to build your Business with my Cost Effective ways of getting leads for MLM guide. In this process do yourself a favor by telling “I can always quit tomorrow” Every Single Day. Why you should follow this guide? Because you owe Financial Freedom and Success you dreamed for. One last thing I want to tell you is that there is no rocket science in enticing or persuading people who are not interested in your business opportunity. Many of them are either simply looking for information or they don’t have initial investment. Remember for Internet Marketing to work, Learn Copy writing skills. Enticing Leads through your copy comes with good copy writing skills.

Commenting on other blogs and social networking profiles will expand the MLM distributor’s own network of friends, generating a new group of free MLM prospects. This should not be confused with spamming. Commenting should be done on specific posts and not just in a haphazard manner. Remember; each comment will include the name of the MLM distributor and a link to their website, blog or social networking profile.
The internet has made it easier than ever for people involved in multilevel marketing (MLM) to find leads or people who might be interested in your product, service, or business. Instead of just reaching out to people you know or approaching strangers, you can create a website, build an email list, leverage social media, and develop referral programs to generate solid leads that can eventually translate to sales.

Focus – In today’s fast paced society, the ability to focus is becoming a rarity.  People are all over the place, and easily distracted.  Time management is a myth, because time is already well managed into 24 hours a day.  FOCUS Management is the challenge for us all.  How to stay FOCUSED, and WHAT to focus on is also a topic in itself. It helps to have mentorship to assist you in this category.


For more than 40 years, Jim Rohn helped people around the world sculpt life strategies that expanded their imagination of what is possible.  Those who had the privilege of hearing him speak can attest to the elegance and common sense of his material, which is why he is still widely regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of our time and thought of by many as a national treasure.
We are experts in Network Marketing Lead Generation, and know what it takes to find the right type of serious opportunity seekers that are ready to invest time and money in a legitimate business. These leads are hungry to be sold the right biz opp, and buy now. Contact us today so that we can discuss your marketing budget and figure out a Biz op lead program that best fits you and your organization. When you buy network marketing leads you want to be partnered with LavaLeads.com

Are you in search of how to increase or gain access to Business Opportunity Leads but you are uncertain of where to begin? If you feel that you are not able to handle this large responsibility on your own, a professional option such as lead generation for Business Opportunity Leads may be the more suitable response for handling all of your needs. Here is everything that you need to know about using our service for lead generation.


Boatbound is the platform for renting your boat out to other seafarers. Set a custom schedule and pricing, and make easy cash, offsetting your ownership costs. Boatbound provides up to $1,000,000 in liability protection and up to $2,000,000 in hull damage protection with every rental through Lloyds of London. Approve each rental on a case-by-case basis, so you can rest assured your vessel is in good hands. Receive payment via direct deposit 2 business days after your rental.
@jeremiah Hi Jeremiah, I saw your comment on this page. Just as you,, I loved this content. It’s very powerful and valuable for us to understand how things are easy, and to have a roadmap in what to do. I’ve always been an entrepreneur, since I started my labour career back in 1996. I’ve been involved in NM for almost 6 years now, and it’s been a fulfilling adventure to me. I suffered a lot in the beginning, becauseI had no support and didn’t know what to do with my choice, but when I’ve found my vision and purpose, everything became right on track and everything made total sense. .How is it going for you?
* Go Pro Recruiting Mastery – the world’s #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession. Join us December 4-6, at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. You will hear from top international thought leaders including Magic Johnson, John Maxwell, and dozes of Million-Dollar Earners. It’s an extraordinary event that you and your team can’t afford to miss. To learn more, go to GoProRecruiting.com.  

“Once you truly understand and believe in what you are doing, you transform your thought process of ‘selling’ to ‘sharing’. Ultimately it comes down to Passion, be Passionate about what you are doing. When you are excited and Passionate about whatever you are doing, you will find you can’t wait to share it with Your World! Find Your Passion, and then Tell the World!” - Steve Wallach
Best known as the author of Rich Dad Poor Dad – the #1 personal finance book of all time – Robert Kiyosaki has challenged and changed the way tens of millions of people around the world think about money. He is an entrepreneur, educator, investor, and author who believes that each of us has the power to make changes in our lives, take control of our financial future, and live the rich life we deserve. 

I would like to try the instagram. I have been in this business since January 5 and not doing very well. Took me a month just to get my children to join & this company is actually giving out shares as you join. Like I said, it took me a month just to get my children to understand the concept of the shares, after sharing the video of Magic Johnson being interviewed by Ellen Degenerate about his reqret for turning down Nike tennis shoes, with one of the owners of Nike being one of the owners of this company & how this is time sensitive, but no one else is interested. Please help.
We strive to verify all of our data and to also ensure your best experience we also offer this lead Replacement policy. If you receive a Disconnected, wrong number or bad email address, we will replace them. Simply complete a support ticket with the leads in question and we will add fresh business opportunity leads to your account. No Questions Asked.. WE Stand Behind Our LEADS!

One of the benefits of MLM is the ability to bring in new business builders and profit from the sales they make in their business. While some see this as "using" others, the reality is that you're being rewarded for helping others succeed. But for them to succeed, you need to see your role not as racking up as many recruits as possible, but in being a leader and trainer. The focus then is on the success of those you help in the business, not on you.
Hey Rob, oh no. Definitely don’t have buyer’s remorse. Look at it as an opportunity for open doors. When I started network marketing I began to understand how to sell a product and then found other opportunities which lead me to where I am now. So I am always grateful for having found network marketing and getting started because I would not have been where I am now. I hope that my blog is helpful and that you can learn something.
This is simply the best BANG FOR YOUR BUCK membership available anywhere, imagine solving all of your lead generation needs with one low cost membership! Try Out Our System For 3 Days For Only $2.99, If You Are Not Satisfied For Whatever Reason Then Cancel At Anytime! Sign Up Now To Get Access To Your 1000 Daily Business Opportunity Leads, Plus Your Software And Information Bonuses And Start Making More Money Today!
Network marketing, also known as Multi-Level Marketing (MLM), is a business model where independent contractors buy into a company and earn a commission on the products they sell. The profession appeals to many people because they can be their own boss, set their own hours, and work towards their own success. It is a big commitment, but network marketing can be a very lucrative career.

I really appreciate the truths and the facts as well John..#2 and #8 is very very important in network marketing.The word “TIME IS MONEY” Is so bad when you working for someone as your boss, because you devote your time and you working for your boss to earn from you. After you spending a whole of your time working for him to earn big, all he can do for you for so many years is to give you something small just to keep you… John i love this..
I’ve been using these leads for over 2 years now and have built large organizations. Not only are the leads of great quality but the support is excellent. I use a simple six-step process to train my team. When you have leads who are all looking to start a home-based business, this is a very simple and duplicatable process. Cal Faber Victoria B.C. Canada –
I have a system which reminds me to follow up on my prospects. It does that without fail. And because most people forget about their prospects after 2 exposures, I have better chances of recruiting my prospects when I get more and more exposures. So develop a system and leverage it to succeed in MLM. This is one of the best-kept network marketing success secrets.
Vayable is the way for local “insiders” to provide travelers with unique, enriching experiences in exchange for cash. Whether you are offering an off-the-beaten path bike tour or an Indian cooking class, Vayable allows you to show others what you love about where you’re from while making money. Vayable Insiders include writers, historians, musicians, tour guides, designers, bankers, architects, foodies, travel agents, students, administrative assistants, philanthropists, taxi drivers and engineers.
Although you can generate business leads yourself by advertising or organizing promotional events, buying your leads is actually going to be the most cost-effective method. In fact, we put a lot of effort into keeping our costs as low as possible so we can pass these savings on to you. Essentially, we go above and beyond what we need to do so you, our customer, is happy. If you have any questions about our high-quality leads, be sure to contact us now so we can help you. The sooner you get started, the sooner you can start making more money for your business! And isn’t that what it’s all about?
Takl providers can connect with local people to get paid for tasks like lawn care, junk hauling, cleaning, and small home repair. Providers receive 70% of the preset job price for any job they accept, which increases to 80% if Providers are requested as a ‘favorite’. Providers keep 90% of any service that the customer requests in addition to the original job, called “While You’re At It” services. Providers receive 100% of all tips and disposal fees.

This is simply the best BANG FOR YOUR BUCK membership available anywhere, imagine solving all of your lead generation needs with one low cost membership! Try Out Our System For 3 Days For Only $2.99, If You Are Not Satisfied For Whatever Reason Then Cancel At Anytime! Sign Up Now To Get Access To Your 1000 Daily Business Opportunity Leads, Plus Your Software And Information Bonuses And Start Making More Money Today!
"Understand the Law of Process. Understand the graph and relationship between work and results. Know that your first year, two, or three you may feel as if you are working much more than gaining. No need to quit or change, keep at it with utmost power and perseverance and know that the time will definitely come where the results will begin to outweigh the time invested. Patience should be an ally, not a foe." - Dr. Luis Arriaza

Talking and selling can be challenging, and the only way you can understand your prospects needs and wants is to ask questions. Many marketers do not listen and ask the right question. They are more focused on talking about their compensation plan, products and services and how their company is excellent than asking their prospects the right questions.
How do you choose mlm leads that are genuinely interested in starting a home business, just like you? Where can you find an mlm lead generation company that takes you and your business seriously—one that actually cares about your success whether you are a leader with 50,000 people in your team or just starting out? You've come to the right place—a place where we make it easy.
Great tips, John! I really like them. #9 really hit home with me. Before, I didn’t realize the mistakes that I made. Always pitching my business never really trying to make a connection and establishing a relationship with my customers until i noticed they’re turning away from me. That’s when I decided to learn what was wrong. Thankfully, I learned. Keep ’em coming John! I love reading your posts. Create a great day!
Using link referral sites is another great way to generate free MLM leads. Link referral sites are basically a database of websites and blogs grouped in categories. After creating an account the network marketer will be asked to review up to 15 other websites and write a review of each on a daily basis. This is a great way to make new friends and expand the network of referrals.
Vayable is the way for local “insiders” to provide travelers with unique, enriching experiences in exchange for cash. Whether you are offering an off-the-beaten path bike tour or an Indian cooking class, Vayable allows you to show others what you love about where you’re from while making money. Vayable Insiders include writers, historians, musicians, tour guides, designers, bankers, architects, foodies, travel agents, students, administrative assistants, philanthropists, taxi drivers and engineers.
* Go Pro Academy – where Network Marketing Distributors become Professionals. When you become a Go Pro Academy member, Eric will personally help you develop the skills you need to become a Network Marketing Pro. You’ll have access to weekly live group training with Eric through our private Go Pro Academy Facebook group and 24/7 access to the Go Pro Academy Master Class Library that includes a variety of online training courses and event replays. For more information, go to NetworkMarketingPro.com/gpa. 
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